# Hotel bookings - data wrangling

Author

Mine Çetinkaya-Rundel

``````library(tidyverse)
library(skimr)``````
``````# From TidyTuesday: https://github.com/rfordatascience/tidytuesday/blob/master/data/2020/2020-02-11/readme.md

## Exercises

### Exercise 1.

Warm up! Take a look at an overview of the data with the `skim()` function.

Note: I already gave you the answer to this exercise. You just need to knit the document and view the output. A definition of all variables is given in the Data dictionary section at the end, though you don’t need to familiarize yourself with all variables in order to work through these exercises.

``skim(hotels)``
 Name hotels Number of rows 119390 Number of columns 32 _______________________ Column type frequency: character 13 Date 1 numeric 18 ________________________ Group variables None

Variable type: character

skim_variable n_missing complete_rate min max empty n_unique whitespace
hotel 0 1 10 12 0 2 0
arrival_date_month 0 1 3 9 0 12 0
meal 0 1 2 9 0 5 0
country 0 1 2 4 0 178 0
market_segment 0 1 6 13 0 8 0
distribution_channel 0 1 3 9 0 5 0
reserved_room_type 0 1 1 1 0 10 0
assigned_room_type 0 1 1 1 0 12 0
deposit_type 0 1 10 10 0 3 0
agent 0 1 1 4 0 334 0
company 0 1 1 4 0 353 0
customer_type 0 1 5 15 0 4 0
reservation_status 0 1 7 9 0 3 0

Variable type: Date

skim_variable n_missing complete_rate min max median n_unique
reservation_status_date 0 1 2014-10-17 2017-09-14 2016-08-07 926

Variable type: numeric

skim_variable n_missing complete_rate mean sd p0 p25 p50 p75 p100 hist
is_canceled 0 1 0.37 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 1 ▇▁▁▁▅
lead_time 0 1 104.01 106.86 0.00 18.00 69.00 160 737 ▇▂▁▁▁
arrival_date_year 0 1 2016.16 0.71 2015.00 2016.00 2016.00 2017 2017 ▃▁▇▁▆
arrival_date_week_number 0 1 27.17 13.61 1.00 16.00 28.00 38 53 ▅▇▇▇▅
arrival_date_day_of_month 0 1 15.80 8.78 1.00 8.00 16.00 23 31 ▇▇▇▇▆
stays_in_weekend_nights 0 1 0.93 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 2 19 ▇▁▁▁▁
stays_in_week_nights 0 1 2.50 1.91 0.00 1.00 2.00 3 50 ▇▁▁▁▁
adults 0 1 1.86 0.58 0.00 2.00 2.00 2 55 ▇▁▁▁▁
children 4 1 0.10 0.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 10 ▇▁▁▁▁
babies 0 1 0.01 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 10 ▇▁▁▁▁
is_repeated_guest 0 1 0.03 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 1 ▇▁▁▁▁
previous_cancellations 0 1 0.09 0.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 26 ▇▁▁▁▁
previous_bookings_not_canceled 0 1 0.14 1.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 72 ▇▁▁▁▁
booking_changes 0 1 0.22 0.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 21 ▇▁▁▁▁
days_in_waiting_list 0 1 2.32 17.59 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 391 ▇▁▁▁▁
adr 0 1 101.83 50.54 -6.38 69.29 94.58 126 5400 ▇▁▁▁▁
required_car_parking_spaces 0 1 0.06 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 8 ▇▁▁▁▁
total_of_special_requests 0 1 0.57 0.79 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 5 ▇▁▁▁▁

### Exercise 2.

Are people traveling on a whim? Let’s see…

Fill in the blanks for filtering for hotel bookings where the guest is not from the US (`country` code `"USA"`) and the `lead_time` is less than 1 day.

Note: You will need to set `eval=TRUE` when you have an answer you want to try out.

``````hotels %>%
filter(
country ____ "USA",
)``````

### Exercise 3.

How many bookings involve at least 1 child or baby?

In the following chunk, replace

• `[AT LEAST]` with the logical operator for “at least” (in two places)
• `[OR]` with the logical operator for “or”

Note: You will need to set `eval=TRUE` when you have an answer you want to try out.

``````hotels %>%
filter(
children [AT LEAST] 1 [OR] babies [AT LEAST] 1
)``````

### Exercise 4.

Do you think it’s more likely to find bookings with children or babies in city hotels or resort hotels? Test your intuition. Using `filter()` determine the number of bookings in resort hotels that have more than 1 child or baby in the room? Then, do the same for city hotels, and compare the numbers of rows in the resulting filtered data frames.

``````# add code here
# pay attention to correctness and code style``````
``````# add code here
# pay attention to correctness and code style``````

### Exercise 5.

Create a frequency table of the number of `adults` in a booking. Display the results in descending order so the most common observation is on top. What is the most common number of adults in bookings in this dataset? Are there any surprising results?

Note: Don’t forget to label your R chunk as well (where it says `label-me-1`). Your label should be short, informative, and shouldn’t include spaces. It also shouldn’t repeat a previous label, otherwise R Markdown will give you an error about repeated R chunk labels.

``````# add code here
# pay attention to correctness and code style``````

### Exercise 6.

Repeat Exercise 5, once for canceled bookings (`is_canceled` coded as 1) and once for not canceled bookings (`is_canceled` coded as 0). What does this reveal about the surprising results you spotted in the previous exercise?

Note: Don’t forget to label your R chunk as well (where it says `label-me-2`).

``````# add code here
# pay attention to correctness and code style``````

### Exercise 7.

Calculate minimum, mean, median, and maximum average daily rate (`adr`) grouped by `hotel` type so that you can get these statistics separately for resort and city hotels. Which type of hotel is higher, on average?

``````# add code here
# pay attention to correctness and code style``````

### Exercise 8.

We observe two unusual values in the summary statistics above – a negative minimum, and a very high maximum). What types of hotels are these? Locate these observations in the dataset and find out the arrival date (year and month) as well as how many people (adults, children, and babies) stayed in the room. You can investigate the data in the viewer to locate these values, but preferably you should identify them in a reproducible way with some code.

Hint: For example, you can `filter` for the given `adr` amounts and `select` the relevant columns.

``````# add code here
# pay attention to correctness and code style``````

## Data dictionary

Below is the full data dictionary. Note that it is long (there are lots of variables in the data), but we will be using a limited set of the variables for our analysis.

variable class description
hotel character Hotel (H1 = Resort Hotel or H2 = City Hotel)
is_canceled double Value indicating if the booking was canceled (1) or not (0)
lead_time double Number of days that elapsed between the entering date of the booking into the PMS and the arrival date
arrival_date_year double Year of arrival date
arrival_date_month character Month of arrival date
arrival_date_week_number double Week number of year for arrival date
arrival_date_day_of_month double Day of arrival date
stays_in_weekend_nights double Number of weekend nights (Saturday or Sunday) the guest stayed or booked to stay at the hotel
stays_in_week_nights double Number of week nights (Monday to Friday) the guest stayed or booked to stay at the hotel
children double Number of children
babies double Number of babies
meal character Type of meal booked. Categories are presented in standard hospitality meal packages:
Undefined/SC – no meal package;
BB – Bed & Breakfast;
HB – Half board (breakfast and one other meal – usually dinner);
FB – Full board (breakfast, lunch and dinner)
country character Country of origin. Categories are represented in the ISO 3155–3:2013 format
market_segment character Market segment designation. In categories, the term “TA” means “Travel Agents” and “TO” means “Tour Operators”
distribution_channel character Booking distribution channel. The term “TA” means “Travel Agents” and “TO” means “Tour Operators”
is_repeated_guest double Value indicating if the booking name was from a repeated guest (1) or not (0)
previous_cancellations double Number of previous bookings that were cancelled by the customer prior to the current booking
previous_bookings_not_canceled double Number of previous bookings not cancelled by the customer prior to the current booking
reserved_room_type character Code of room type reserved. Code is presented instead of designation for anonymity reasons
assigned_room_type character Code for the type of room assigned to the booking. Sometimes the assigned room type differs from the reserved room type due to hotel operation reasons (e.g. overbooking) or by customer request. Code is presented instead of designation for anonymity reasons
booking_changes double Number of changes/amendments made to the booking from the moment the booking was entered on the PMS until the moment of check-in or cancellation
deposit_type character Indication on if the customer made a deposit to guarantee the booking. This variable can assume three categories:
No Deposit – no deposit was made;
Non Refund – a deposit was made in the value of the total stay cost;
Refundable – a deposit was made with a value under the total cost of stay.
agent character ID of the travel agency that made the booking
company character ID of the company/entity that made the booking or responsible for paying the booking. ID is presented instead of designation for anonymity reasons
days_in_waiting_list double Number of days the booking was in the waiting list before it was confirmed to the customer
customer_type character Type of booking, assuming one of four categories:
Contract - when the booking has an allotment or other type of contract associated to it;
Group – when the booking is associated to a group;
Transient – when the booking is not part of a group or contract, and is not associated to other transient booking;
Transient-party – when the booking is transient, but is associated to at least other transient booking
adr double Average Daily Rate as defined by dividing the sum of all lodging transactions by the total number of staying nights
required_car_parking_spaces double Number of car parking spaces required by the customer
total_of_special_requests double Number of special requests made by the customer (e.g. twin bed or high floor)
reservation_status character Reservation last status, assuming one of three categories:
Canceled – booking was canceled by the customer;
Check-Out – customer has checked in but already departed;
No-Show – customer did not check-in and did inform the hotel of the reason why
reservation_status_date double Date at which the last status was set. This variable can be used in conjunction with the ReservationStatus to understand when was the booking canceled or when did the customer checked-out of the hotel